# Tutorial

## Making a Data.toml file

Suppose you had some data which you wanted to access located in your Julia home directory at ~/.julia/datasets (or joinpath(homedir(), ".julia", "datasets") on windows). For this tutorial we'll use the tutorial data from the DataSets docs directory at https://github.com/JuliaComputing/DataSets.jl/tree/master/docs/src/data..

To make DataSets aware of the data, let's create a Data.toml file in joinpath(homedir(), ".julia", "datasets", "Data.toml") and add the following content:

# Version of the data TOML format.
data_config_version=1

[[datasets]]
# Some alphanumeric name (can include spaces and underscores)
name="a_text_file"
# Optional description
description="A text file containing the standard greeting"
# A unique ID. Generate with UUIDs.uuid4()
uuid="b498f769-a7f6-4f67-8d74-40b770398f26"

# Storage location
[datasets.storage]
# The name of the storage driver.
driver="FileSystem"
# Data stored in FileSystem is either File (a file) or FileTree (a directory/folder)
type="File"
# Path with posix / separators.
# Use @__DIR__ for paths relative to Data.toml
path="@__DIR__/data/file.txt"

# A second example
[[datasets]]
name="a_tree_example"
description="A very simple directory tree"
uuid="e7fd7080-e346-4a68-9ca9-98593a99266a"

[datasets.storage]
driver="FileSystem"
type="FileTree"
path="@__DIR__/data/csvset"

# Further datasets can be added as desired
# [[datasets]]
# ...


Because we've written the Data.toml into a default location which is searched for by DataSets.PROJECT, it will automatically become accessible in the default global data project:

julia> DataSets.PROJECT
DataSets.StackedDataProject:
DataSets.ActiveDataProject:
(empty)
DataSets.TomlFileDataProject [~/.julia/datasets/Data.toml]:
a_text_file    => b498f769-a7f6-4f67-8d74-40b770398f26
a_tree_example => e7fd7080-e346-4a68-9ca9-98593a99266a

The dataset function can then be used to load metadata for a particular dataset:

julia> dataset("a_text_file")
DataSet instance:

name = "a_text_file"
uuid = "b498f769-a7f6-4f67-8d74-40b770398f26"
description = "A text file containing the standard greeting"

[storage]
driver = "FileSystem"
type = "File"
path = ".../DataSets/docs/src/data/file.txt"

If you prefer to pass around the data project explicitly rather than relying on global configuration this is also possible:

julia> project = DataSets.load_project("src/Data.toml")
DataSets.DataProject:
📄 a_text_file    => b498f769-a7f6-4f67-8d74-40b770398f26
📁 a_tree_example => e7fd7080-e346-4a68-9ca9-98593a99266a

julia> dataset(project, "a_text_file")
DataSet instance:

name = "a_text_file"
uuid = "b498f769-a7f6-4f67-8d74-40b770398f26"
description = "A text file containing the standard greeting"

[storage]
driver = "FileSystem"
type = "File"
path = ".../DataSets/docs/src/data/file.txt"

## Working with File data

The most basic type of dataset is the File which is a simple 1D array of bytes (ie, a Vector{UInt8}; a blob). To access the file you can call open() on the corresponding DataSet which will return a File. For example,

julia> open(dataset("a_text_file"))
📄  @ .../DataSets/docs/src/data/file.txt

Use the form open(T, dataset) to read the data as a specific type. File data can be opened as String, IO, or Vector{UInt8}, depending on your needs:

julia> io = open(IO, dataset("a_text_file"))
IOStream(<file .../DataSets/docs/src/data/file.txt>)

"Hello world!\n"

julia> buf = open(Vector{UInt8}, dataset("a_text_file"));

julia> String(buf)
"Hello world!\n"

julia> open(String, dataset("a_text_file"))
"Hello world!\n"

To ensure the dataset is closed again in a timely way (freeing any resources such as file handles), you can use the scoped form, for example:

julia> open(IO, dataset("a_text_file")) do io
@show content
nothing
end
content = "Hello world!\n"

## Working with FileTree data

Let's look at some tree-like data which is represented on local disk as a folder or directory. Tree data is represented in Julia as the FileTree type and can be indexed with path components to get at the Files inside. In turn, we can open() one of the file blobs and look at the data contained within.

julia> open(dataset("a_tree_example"))
📂 Tree  @ .../DataSets/docs/src/data/csvset
📄 1.csv
📄 2.csv

A FileTree has a dictionary-like API: it's a map from String names to Files or FileTree subtrees. Iterating over it yields each child of the tree in turn. For example, to examine the content of all files in a tree:

julia> tree = open(FileTree, dataset("a_tree_example"))
📂 Tree  @ .../DataSets/docs/src/data/csvset
📄 1.csv
📄 2.csv

julia> for file in tree
content = open(String, file)
@info "File content" file content
end
┌ Info: File content
│   file = 📄 1.csv @ .../DataSets/docs/src/data/csvset
└   content = "Name,Age\n\"Aaron\",23\n\"Harry\",42\n"
┌ Info: File content
│   file = 📄 2.csv @ .../DataSets/docs/src/data/csvset
└   content = "Name,Age\n\"Rose\",19\n\"Tom\",25\n"

To list the names of files and subtrees, use keys(), or haskey() to determine the presence of a file name

julia> tree = open(FileTree, dataset("a_tree_example"));

julia> keys(tree)
2-element Vector{String}:
"1.csv"
"2.csv"

false

To get a particular file, indexing can be used, and isfile() and isdir() can be used to detect whether a child of a tree is a file or a subtree.

julia> tree = open(FileTree, dataset("a_tree_example"));

julia> tree["1.csv"]
📄 1.csv @ /home/chris/.julia/dev/DataSets/docs/src/data/csvset

julia> isfile(tree["1.csv"])
true

julia> isdir(tree)
true

## Program Entry Points

Rather than manually using the open() functions as shown above, the @datafunc macro lets you define entry points where DataSets will be mapped into your program.

For example, here we define an entry point called main which takes

• DataSet type File, presenting it as a String within the program
• DataSet type FileTree, presenting it as a FileTree within the program

The @datarun macro allows you to call such program entry points, extracting named data sets from a given project.

julia> @datafunc function main(x::File=>String, t::FileTree=>FileTree)
@show x
open(String, t["1.csv"]) do csv_data
@show csv_data
end
end
main (generic function with 2 methods)

julia> @datarun main("a_text_file", "a_tree_example");
x = "Hello world!\n"
csv_data = "Name,Age\n\"Aaron\",23\n\"Harry\",42\n"

In a given program it's possible to have multiple entry points by simply defining multiple @datafunc implementations. In this case @datarun will dispatch to the entry point with the matching DataSet type.